Doublet Antenna Calculator



29 221 422. Energy Analysis - Feedlines. 88) should also work well. Antenna patterns are “reasonable” for local or DX work. Place a 1:1 Balun on the Antenna end of the Feedline. NorCal Doublet Antenna. From the radiation patterns of both, the difference between resonant antenna and nonresonant antenna is as follows. The antenna can be employed on 80, 40, 20 and 10m with considerable, though acceptable levels of VSWR. In radio and telecommunications a dipole antenna or doublet is the simplest and most widely used class of antenna. As seen on his page, the original formula seems to come from an article by J. Dipoles fed with an open wire line are called "Double-Zepp" or "Doublet". 38 - Off-center-fed Full-wave. Using speaker wire for a dipole: antenna conductor, though annealed copper is relatively low strength material. Calculator FM (frequency modulated) antenna to bring in the stations loud and clear. Good/Bad Feedline Lengths. The normal quarter wave ground plane antenna consists of a vertical radiator which is insulated and centered between 4 horizontal surrounding. As an example, a 80m off center fed dipole will be resonant somewhere in the band of 75 / 80m, along with 40m and 20m and 10m and 6m and even 2 meters. My goal was to test how well two different antennas that I made for field use compare to my base station antenna. 06 meters of wire. 0 m) above ground. The question is about how to do three separate things. Antenna Resources. Only the kindness of my next-door neighbors (who let me use one of their trees for the antenna) kept me on the air. Depending on your surroundings and antenna height, 80m may only reach an SWR of 1. This is an End-Fed Half-Wave (EFHW*) antenna for 80/40/30/20/17/15/12 and 10m bands. The Western HF-10 multiband dipole was born out of Fred Western M0BZI's attempts at working 80m from a small garden. The horizontal center-fed wire forms the antenna proper, which accounts for the radiation of transmitted energy and the reception of incoming energy. Post #1440. This will be of interest to amateur (ham) radio operators and shortwave listeners. 88 ft and 44 ft are popular lengths. Reasons to build a full size plug and play tuned NVIS dipole: •Full size antennas put out full size signals! Maximum power and voltage transfer occurs when the antenna chain has matched. Uses 96 feet quarter wave, or per leg. In comparison, this thing was dinky. heavy duty insulators. The basic inverted V antenna. 454545 This is close enough to 45 feet 6 inches. I also remembered good signals on 60 m from those who are using this type of antenna. I do not hear any ADSL type noise on HF at all which is quite surprising considering with the various combinations of wire antennas it was S9+ outside the notched bands. NEC (= Numerical Electric Code ) is a simulation method for wire antennas, developed by the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in 1981 or the Navy. Dual Z0 Short Stubs. Read honest and unbiased product reviews from our users. This aerial is called, to use a technical term, an 80m Linear-Loaded Doublet - known in the USA as a "Cobra" due to the snaking of the wires. They are inexpensive and re-markably easy to install. Antennas including linked dipoles, telescopic poles also ham radio kits - everything you need. The red squares indicate 50Ω SWR less than or equal to 10:1 for ladder line lengths of 1 to 125 feet. If you have no particular preference within a given ham radio band, then simply enter its center frequency (i. Homemade 11 Meter Antennas homebrew 11 meter antenna Condos/Homes 640 x 902 · 149 kB · jpeg 10 Meter Vertical Antenna This DIY 10 Meter Vertical preparation know how to solar 358 x 686 ·. 43 Foot Antenna Measurement Methods According to the EZNEC antenna mod-eling program, a 43 foot vertical has an impedance of 3 –j620 Ω on 160 meters when installed over a perfect ground and not in. Right Angle Marconi Antenna 17 26. Make yourself a multiband antenna with many doublets in parallel, fed with just one feedline. Note: The demo program doesn't include the several additional features of EZNEC+. 28 - Doublet Dipole Antenna. This aerial is called, to use a technical term, an 80m Linear-Loaded Doublet - known in the USA as a "Cobra" due to the snaking of the wires. As a receiving antenna, the figure describes how well the antenna converts radio waves arriving from. This calculator is designed to give the horizontal length of a particular dipole (including Tees) antenna, or one side of it, for the frequency chosen. Use a 4:1 current balun at the joiner of the coax to the section of 450 ohm twin lead. frequency for doublet and loop antennas. Doublet Dipole Antenna 18 29. ROZENDAL ASSOCIATES, INC. monsters killed. Use a coax loss calculator to compare 600 ohm open wire ladder line with the coax you'd otherwise be using. 160m Half-Sloper Antenna. HF, VHF & UHF Calculators, Designs & Plans Antenna Length Chart for Quarter, Half & Full Wave Dipole Calculator KWARC Dipole Calculator CSG Dipole Inverted Vee Antenna Calculator Super J-Pole Antenna Calculator and Plans (Collinear Design) Quarter Wave Ground Plane Vertical 1/8 Thru Full Wave Antenna Calculator Cubical Quad Calculator. 21 655 782. With a view to get better performance particularly on lower frequency bands this antenna was. Linearly Loaded Tee Antenna 17 27. monsters killed. 38 - Off-center-fed Full-wave Doublet Antenna. Multi-band with antenna tuner. Notice the resultant wavelengths. Antenna designers, whether hobbyist or technician, can be assured they need look no further than Antenna Toolkit for the complete guide to understanding the practicalities of using and designing antennas today. If you use a Off Center Fed Dipole antenna, this gives you the ability to communicate on more then one band with the same antenna. 5 m between 20 m trap and 40 m trap and 11 m between the 40 m trap and the end of the antenna. Until recently, my tower supported a pair of phased 40 meter delta loops. The Antenna Doll isn't available at all good retailers or radio shops, it can only be bought in specialist outlets such as eBay and your local tat emporium, junk shop or adult outlet. The Wire Size can range from 16 AWG to 12 AWG. Hf Radio, Ham Radio Antenna, All Band, Good Communication, Boombox, Spectrum, Ham Soup, Hams, Circuits The Ground Plane Antenna Calculator. To realize this an antenna is divided into “short segments” with linear variation of current and voltage (like SPICE when simulating circuits). 75 m (55 ft). By default the *. Multiple leg length by two and by frequency on analyzer. The half-wave dipole is very simple to construct. G5RV - 102 ft. for several antennas. I was able to do some A\B testing with my 4BTV and the new doublet. Antennas including linked dipoles, telescopic poles also ham radio kits - everything you need. Audio filters and more. A more recent version of the antenna cut for 40 meters uses a different ratio:. This is the pre copy-edited version, updated in May, 2003. I get 35 channels and I an a long way from any large city. You only need to type in the numbers in the Cyan boxes. 37 - Multi-Band Portable Antenna. for the 160 Meter Band. Como se ve, para una potencia de 100W el capacitor debe soportar tensiones de 4100V (alto Q de la antena), por lo que se debe emplear un capacitor con buena separación entre placas, preferentemente tipo mariposa (). This part has to be calculated exactly. 34 to 35 meters - 111 to 115 ft. i Field Manual No. Power at the antenna for RG8x, 14Mhz and 100w is. The 7 band OCF Dipole antenna was erected at 25 to 30 feet, on a hill side, using a military style push up mast, with a few customization on it. 9 MHz Full-wave Loop Antenna. Enter the desired operating frequency in megahertz to get a good starting length for a dipole in both feet and meters. Divide by 2 for each leg length. The antenna is up 30 feet in the middle and the ends are at 26 feet. This antenna is often called a center-fed Zepp, although any similarity to a true Zepp. As the name suggests, the length of the antenna is about half of the wavelength of the frequency the antenna is cut for. 22 Different Wire Antennas for the 160 Meter Band Off-Center-Fed Full-Wave Doublet Antenna. A doublet antenna is a form of a dipole that is balanced with respect to ground. Easy SWR Adjustment Calculator for Vertical and Dipole Antennas. Hf Radio, Ham Radio Antenna, All Band, Good Communication, Boombox, Spectrum, Ham Soup, Hams, Circuits The Ground Plane Antenna Calculator. Cebik-Antenna-Options. PackTennas use full size wire antenna elements that can be configured. Innovative Microwave Products. Just type in where it is resonant right now - then type in where you would like it to be resonant and the spreadsheet will auto-calculate the trimming. Note: The demo program doesn't include the several additional features of EZNEC+. In total, it’s around 18m of wire per leg folded 3 times and fed with 300-ohm balanced feeder. Very few web references were available back then(in the internet dark ages). PackTennas are light weight, compact, portable HF antenna systems ideal for operating on the trail, at the campsite, on Field Day, SOTA activation, air travel, or HOA restricted locations. The azimuth plot is shown in Figure 2 and the elevation in Figure 3. While cut-and-try experimenta-tion is a very slow way to optimize antennas, modeling is so quick that a wide range of so-lutions can be investigated easily. You only need to type in the numbers in the Cyan boxes. Antennas for Autotuners, KG4JJH 3 of 5 Antenna 3: 102-foot doublet at 35 feet elevation fed with Wireman 552, ladder line (450Ω, 0. Doublet with Ladder Line Feed. The 80 meter inverted vee is a common and classic antenna. The ability of an antenna to focus electro-magnetic energy is defined by its gain. 10m -160m Multiband "Z" Antenna. It is a full size antenna on 40 meters and a shortened 80 meter antenna. The formulas above are for typical wire dimensions. There are three types of dipoles: Ideal half-wavelength. As well as ensuring you the best possible reception (especially in the car park of the local Womens' Institute) almost 10 pence (20 cents) of the price of every. 80m Mobile Shootout Results. Most of my recent tests through 2007/2008 were compared with a 100ft doublet antenna at the same height of 24ft. 34 - Sterba Curtain Array Antenna. It was originally designed to operate as a 3/2 wavelength center fed antenna for 14 MHz, but amateurs soon discovered it would offer reasonable performance on many other bands. The G5RV: what is it, really? • The G5RV was originally designed as a 3 /2 antenna for use on 20 meters. In fact, a few years ago, I suggested the L-antenna as a workable simple solution to needs on 10, 6, and 2 meters to communicate with stations using antennas that are horizontally and that are vertically polarized. If you need a custom length, send an email through the contact form and we'll be sure you get what you need. RadioWavz DX40 Off Center Fed (OCF) Dipole Antenna - 40, 20, 10, and 6 Meters. 43-foot Vertical Doublet Antenna (1) 500W HF PA (8) 813 AM Transmitter (3) 813 AM Transmitter - accessories (2) AD8307 (1) Antenna - 80 Meter Loop (3) Antenna Launcher (2) Antenna Tuner: Automatic (Auto-tuner) (10) Antenna Tuner: Drake MN-4 (2) Antenna Tuner: Elecraft KAT500 (1) Antenna Tuner: Nye Viking MB-V-A (1) Antenna Tuner: Rohde Antenna. In total, it's around 18m of wire per leg folded 3 times and fed with 300-ohm balanced feeder. Thus, a small or dilute sample will give a weak signal, and doubling or tripling the sample concentration increases the signal strength proportionally. WHAT IT IS: An antenna that will operate well on all Ham bands with minimal assist from the tuners included in many modern transceivers. Attach analyzer to feedline and tune for resonance (where reactance is zero). Antenna Length Calculator Build a di-pole inside antenna and receive all the FM stations on your stereo unit, loud and clear. Dipolo tribanda. The antenna is claimed to provide a good match under these conditions to coax on the fundamental and most even harmonics. The open. This antenna in planar microstrip configuration is designed on FR4 substrate of thickness 1. Easy SWR Adjustment Calculator for Vertical and DIpole Ham Radio Antennas - YouTube. The Double Bazooka Antenna - A Review. 2meters window line. 10m -160m Multiband “Z” Antenna. Most antenna designs for polar orbiting weather spacecraft are based on circularly polarized turnstile or QFH designs. Loaded or bent doublet Zepp or derivative G7FEK 80ft or less/near neighbours: Inverted 'L' or 'T' Loaded or bent doublet Zepp or derivative G7FEK 105-130ft -not really a small garden! Short doublet for 80m Inverted 'L' or 'T' G5RV Any doublet longer than 90ft can be made to work reasonably – 105ft and 120ft are best. 6 m); the height difference between its top and bottom is 26. Radio Mast Design. This video documents my construction of a doublet antenna, you will see the antenna mounted and in position at the end of this video. The EZNEC model predicts the antenna to have a gain of 11 dBi and front-to-back ratio of 25 dB at. This part has to be calculated exactly. While 1/8th wave works reasonably well, better coverage is obtained if the antenna is mounted at about 1/20th wavelength above ground. This is because any type of open wire. The secret is the ladder line's low loss. This depends on the spacing of the wires of Ladderline (true Openwire). This Dipole antenna gives the same gain as all other dipoles, however, the Half Square is a much better DX antenna for a given elevation and may be worth the extra effort. An old Johnson Matchbox, if you can find one, offers a fully balanced output if you are into Doublet antennas fed with ladder line. Shown in the paper are the plots and impedance calculations for all bands from 160 thru 6 meters. The Matching Section is 450 Ohm Open Wire Feedline and is a compromise impedance between the 5/8 Wave antenna elements and the feed point, A 4:1 Current Balun. 8 metres) doublet antenna with over 8 feet (2. All readings were taken with a Array Solutions AIM-1470b Antenna Analyzer. The Western HF-10 multiband dipole was born out of Fred Western M0BZI's attempts at working 80m from a small garden. A 3 dB increase in signal strength is about equal to doubling the. 22 Different Wire Antennas. 40 & 80 m Portable Trapped Dipole. 25 long center fed dou- blet as shown in Figure 1. End-Fed Half-Wave Antenna 6-8 Center-Fed Doublet Antenna 6-9 Field Expedient Directional Antennas 6-14 Vertical Half-Rhombic and Long-Wire Antennas 6-14 Yagi Antenna 6-14 Vee Antenna 6-16. Properly aligned and phased, a collinear array can provide a 3 dB or more increase in signal strength. The tuning process is the same as for the 40/80 dipole, excpet the 20 m wires are trimmed first to an SWR of 1. Maximum Z to tuner shown above. com 595 HF & TACTICAL ANTENNA SYSTEMS 7 WM Series Broadband Monopole Antennas 2 - 30 MHz-12 -8 -4 90 60 30 0 dB 330 300 270 240 210 180 150 120 WM230 Elevation Cut. Four Element Broadside Antenna. Thus, antennas whose lengths are much less than that of the emitted radiation tend to be extremely inefficient. The antenna generally has a high impedance (several thousand ohm) on most bands. Make yourself a multiband antenna with many doublets in parallel, fed with just one feedline. Place a 1:1 Balun on the Antenna end of the Feedline. Hall, "Off-center loaded dipole antennas", QST Sept 1974, 28-34. Twin-Led Marconi Antenna. The garden here at PZT Towers is 50ftx20ft so a full-length flat-top dipole/doublet to get me onto 7MHz was out of the question…. 5 for the FULL BAND on 20 meters. Don't worry about the total length of the antenna. 4 metres) of ice hanging from it in May!. My "shack" is in the basement which presented a bit of a problem of how to get the ladder line in. ROZENDAL ASSOCIATES, INC. Your first antenna – the half-wave dipole. The dipole antenna is a straight electrical conductor measuring (1/2 wavelength) from end to end and connected at the center to a radio frequency (RF) feedline. The folded dipole is a simple antenna to build. The K5HH Antenna Calculators are for demonstration purposes only and may not reflect actual numbers for your equipment. The antenna is cut for 15 meters and is 346 inches each side of center. I’m gonna take a confusing subject and hopefully demystify it. 09 metres of wire. 1 shows the basic elements of the system. Given time, many approaches in the Antenna Book would be well worth a try. A further factor which influences antenna resonant length is the diameter of the wire used for that antenna. A 3 dB increase in signal strength is about equal to doubling the. The G5RV antenna (c. Flat-Top Dipole or Inverted Vee? As is often the case when given a choice, there are trade-offs involved. In the Doublet proposed by James and Parfitt1 the two offset. Delta Loop Antenna. Vertical Bazooka Antenna. Here is a small collection of EZNEC files of antennas I have interest in. The higher the antenna, the lower the takeoff angle to the horizon, which increases the effective range of the antenna. The apparatus is constructed from brass or any other suitable metal without requiring dielectric loading and without requiring direct coupling on the outside of the tubes. Typical antenna lengths for the amateur bands from 160 - 10m, both when using insulators or nylon rope, are shown in Table 3. Yesterday our discussion on 3740 kHz included the characteristics of a wire doublet antenna for 7 thru 30 MHz, based on recommendations (see page 8) from W8JI. Only the kindness of my next-door neighbors (who let me use one of their trees for the antenna) kept me on the air. M = Signal wavelength (l) in meters. Clothesline Antenna. I get 35 channels and I an a long way from any large city. The antenna is constructed much like an ordinary Dipole antenna but with 5/8 Wavelength Elements matched with an added Impedance Matching Section of balanced feed line. In total, it’s around 18m of wire per leg folded 3 times and fed with 300-ohm balanced feeder. )空中的,航空的,空想的,空氣的. Antenna dipolo: Antenna dipolo, IK1QLD: Antenne per il radioascolto: Antenas dipoles: Antenna filare aperiodica, IU5HIV: Antenne Zeppelin: Building a Longwire antenna, M0LMK: Carolina windom-bands 20, 17, 15, 12 and 10: Dipole Inverted Vee Antenna Design: Doublet Zeppelin, IZ2ZPH: Dipole and inverted V design and calculator: Dipole colineaire. A dipole design for the 20-meter band is an efficient and inexpensive antenna for the novice and veteran ham enthusiast alike. A dipole design for the 20-meter band is an efficient and inexpensive antenna for the novice and veteran ham enthusiast alike. could get the antenna high enough, there would be no significant difference in performance from an inverted-L and an erect L. , extreme low or high impedances) at the tuner end, on all bands. I use my downspout like a random wire antenna, using a commercial autotuner (or internal tuner, in the case of my KX3). In addition, a doublet must always be used with an antenna tuning unit (ATU) due to the impedance mismatches. In terms of magic lengths, ideally the antenna wires on a shack tuned doublet should be at least 3/8 wavelength on the lowest band of interest so that the antenna presents a reasonable matching impedance on that band and is reasonably efficient. Wire Antenna Design Lengths. The Wire Size can range from 16 AWG to 12 AWG. For best results, installation should be at height of 40 feet minimum. Reasons to build a full size plug and play tuned NVIS dipole: •Full size antennas put out full size signals! Maximum power and voltage transfer occurs when the antenna chain has matched. Below are links to screen shots from NEC-based analysis of the antenna, for two lengths: 55 ft and 66 ft. No-Tuner Folded Dipole. The antenna can be located outside, or inside the home. That was a little over a week ago and I've had some time to play with this new antenna. The doublet antenna is a form of dipole operated with balanced feeder, typically open wire feeder and used with a tuning unit to provide multiband operation. Calculator FM (frequency modulated) antenna to bring in the stations loud and clear. A little height will allow for better line-of-sight and ground-wave propagation. The Antenna Calculator for Half-Wave Dipoles Enter your desired frequency (MHz) of operation (i. Enter chinese/english word(s), Taiwan address or math. Antenna Calculators - Antenna Plans - Antenna Designs - Construction - Antenna How To - Videos - Antenna Manufacturers G7FEK Limited Space Antenna Nested Marconi Antenna Doublet aerial for HF amateur ham radio short wave bands Some general talk about design and builds, worth watching, useful info. 160m Linear Loaded Sloper Antenna. Doublet Antenna. The antenna is about 60 feet away from any houses so I guess the combination of that plus its supposed lower immunity to noise is working but early days yet. Delta Loop Antenna. Only the kindness of my next-door neighbors (who let me use one of their trees for the antenna) kept me on the air. W4RNL Antenna Options. As an example, a 80m off center fed dipole will be resonant somewhere in the band of 75 / 80m, along with 40m and 20m and 10m and 6m and even 2 meters. The basic inverted V antenna. Dual Z0 Short Stubs. 80m doublets appear to be the largest commonly used. 4 wavelengths long or longer. 8-30 Mc center-loaded HF whip, 51 Mc Whip, 28/27 Mc whip, GPS antenna under a radome on roof, 145 Mc 5/8 wave whip and VHF/UHF scanner whip. No-Tuner 20m-10m Doublet. for the 160 Meter Band. Ham Radio Antenna Wifi Antenna Radio Shop Hf Radio Ham Radio Operator Radio Band Cool Wood Projects Electrical Projects Diy Speakers This aerial covers the 20, 17, 15, 12 and 10 metre bands and is made from a single 3 metre length of 22 mm copper tube cut into 4 pieces of equal length. The doublet is going to be directional off the ends of the wire at 20 meters. The USAF let Boeing build three 707s on government tooling and then made Boeing build their own tooling for the commercial plane. As shown in Figure 1, the basic all-band doublet antenna system consists of 3 parts: the antenna proper, the feedline, and the antenna tuning unit (or transmatch). Multiband operation is an option. The open. Green is the 15m long wire bicone antenna mounted in the loft Yellow is a 40m long doublet fed with 450 ohm ladder line and an auto-atu at the base Blue is the 40m long ladder line fed doublet strapped as a Tee and fed against 16 ground radials using an auto-atu at the base. We don’t use low-budget accessories. 5mm wire so it should be possible to use it with a doublet antenna as the book suggested. Usually RG-59/U is used for 73 Ohm coax line and RG-11. The world's favorite antenna book. The tuning process is the same as for the 40/80 dipole, excpet the 20 m wires are trimmed first to an SWR of 1. (dipole), based on 95% of electrical wavelength, considering end effects. I soon whipped up a temporary doublet antenna to fit on the 9m Hilomast I use for antenna testing. This helpful antenna trimming tool will come in handy if you need to add or cut wire from your dipole or vertical antenna elements during portable, emergency, or Field Day operations. 15/20m Doublet Using 300 TV Twin Lead and a 1:1 Balun. They are affected by height above the ground and surrounding objects. Cebik-Antennas An-Ten-Ten-nas: a series of articles for 10-10 News. Longer lengths will start to produce the classic "butterfly wing. 9 MHz Full-Wave Loop Antenna. Very few web references were available back then(in the internet dark ages). Antenna height will affect the exact resonance point, radiation pattern, and takeoff angle. Flat-Top Dipole or Inverted Vee? As is often the case when given a choice, there are trade-offs involved. Properly aligned and phased, a collinear array can provide a 3 dB or more increase in signal strength. Dipoles have a feed point of about 75Ω in free space, and can be fed with 50Ω to 75Ω coax with or without a 1:1 balun. Random Length Radiator Wire Antenna. At least once a week we receive a request a for high ratio balun (6:1, 9:1, 12:1) to manage the transition from high impedance ladder line / open wire feedline to coax. Cebik's papers on antennas and antenna modeling. It forms a part of the antenna electrical length even though it doesn't radiate. 31 - Collinear Franklin Antenna. The ZS6BKW JUNIOR(early 1980's) was derived from the G5RV by Brian Austin (G0GSF, formerly ZS6BKW). The Cobweb 2000The 5 bander CobWeb Antenna is a High Quality designed antenna with products from Europe. The height in my trees would be at 65-70 feet. The problem is that they are considerably less efficient that the same length dipole (doublet) with optimized tuning. Merge Doublet antenna here? This is another term for a dipole antenna, and the Doublet antenna article is almost a stub. 4 metres) of ice hanging from it in May!. But be warned - end-fed antennas can be noisier and also cause more EMC/interference problems. The beauty of the zepp antenna is that it is balanced, and doesn't really need a ground connection to operate. In other words, the peak radiation at 30 degrees is about the same as that of a half wave dipole, while the null is about 3. 40m - 80m. The very predictable pattern of a resonant dipole applies only to the lowest, or design frequency, of the OCFD and the patterns for all bands above will be distorted. OM0ET 124,300 views. Use 75 or 50 ohm cable to feed the centre of the dipole. Antenna gain is expressed as a ra tio of the effective radiated output power (Pout) to the input power (Pin) The gain of an antenna is a measure of power transmitted relative. Multiband operation is an option. 5 m open-wire 450 ohm feeders. Half-Extended Double Zepp. Antenna Resources. They are inexpensive and re-markably easy to install. G 50 ohm antenna cable. MMANA-GAL allows users to save the results of Calculations in a special file ( antenna name. 8 metres) doublet antenna with over 8 feet (2. Energy Analysis - Feedlines. DX Engineering Multi-Band Dipole Antennas are designs that are rugged, yet lightweight. M = Signal wavelength (l) in meters. The dipole is any one of a class of antennas producing a radiation pattern approximating that of an elementary electric dipole with a radiating structure supporting a line current so energized that the current has only one node at each end. ) Order 7-Band 300 Watt OCF Dipole Antenna: $325 Special Price: $249 (6 or more = $198 ea. The antenna is actually a 3-band CL-OCFD antenna (160, 80 & 75 m) where the center loading moves the natural third harmonic to the lower end of the 80 m band, below the 75 m second harmonic. Delta Loop Antenna. Connection to the Antenna Terminals. I plan to raise the antenna by several meters this summer. The ULTIMAX-8040 broadband dual band double bazooka for 40 & 80 meters is a fantastic antenna using a newly designed “HY-Q” coax coils that gives outstanding broadband performance. 88 ft and 44 ft are popular lengths. " Someone else who built one and found it works. erful antenna modeling software. Random Length Radiator Wire Antenna. Share This Collection. During field day, I used a homemade doublet fed with 450 ohm ladder line. A, 1995, pages 69-73. Loaded Quarter Wave Antenna Inductance Calculator The original javascript was created by Jack Ponton and can be seen here. IT IS NOT FED WITH COAX! It can be designed for use from 160 thru 10 meters very easily using the standard 1/2 wave dipole formula:. revised some wording 1/11/2010. Stealth Antennas check the SWR in the centre of the band. Prototype # 1 was a "Dual Band" (40 -20 Meter) Parallel Dipole Antenna, each Dipole is a "Cage Dipole" SWR was BELOW 2. You may use this collection for your experiments. These antennas are fed in the center, which point will be either a current node or voltage node depending on the design of the particular antenna. Thus, antennas whose lengths are much less than that of the emitted radiation tend to be extremely inefficient. It will provide excellent short range communications and is easy to set up for emergency or temporary communications. 5 for the FULL BAND on 20 meters. Figure 20: Nominal dimensions of the multi-band end-fed antenna. Read these tips to learn how ha. ) The 4 dBd gain helps a bit but it is the great front-to-back ratio that really improves my receive capabilities due to the improvement in signal to noise ratio. 38 - Off-center-fed Full-wave. Share This Collection. IC-706 Screwdriver Tuning. Antenna end insulators. Antenna Supports and Hardware. Use 75 or 50 ohm cable to feed the centre of the dipole. The folded dipole is a simple antenna to build. The USAF let Boeing build three 707s on government tooling and then made Boeing build their own tooling for the commercial plane. As a transmitting antenna, the figure describes how well the antenna converts input power into radio waves headed in a specified direction. But also wire antennas, bobtail curtains, c-pole and hentenna. Cebik-Antennas An-Ten-Ten-nas: a series of articles for 10-10 News. The size of the antenna makes a Half wave length on 80 meters, and with the traps a half wave on 40m with a SWR (standing wave ratio) of 1:1-1. 09 metres of wire. 1 above you see the black part of the antenna that represents the radiating element. Enter the desired frequency and select the desired calculation from the drop box. As erected in 2007 January, the center is 20 ft (6. The Antenna: The antenna proper consists of a length of copper or copperweld wire, with a center feedpoint. Turns out this antenna has 5/8 wavelength on each side of the center insulator. all band doublet covers 160-6 Meters with balanced line tuner. The garden here at PZT Towers is 50ftx20ft so a full-length flat-top dipole/doublet to get me onto 7MHz was out of the question…. The MFJ-1778 (G5RV) consists of a 102 foot flat top fed with a 32. At the feed point of the antenna you’ll notice the PL-259 is covered with splicing tape and a layer of 3M Super 33+ for UV resistance. Uses 65 feet matching stub, feeding with 450 ohm ladder line, and 14 gauge is standard specification. A shortened multi-band End-Fed Half Wave (EFHW) antenna for 80-10m Steve Nichols G0KYA A shortened multiband antenna, about 23m long, for 80m-10m that offers low SWR (1. Say Goodbye to that G5RV! Look at the ZS6BKW - Duration: 26:13. G 50 ohm antenna cable. 160-10 Meter W7FG Open Wire Fed Dipole- 240' Dipole. As shown in Figure 1, the basic all-band doublet antenna system consists of 3 parts: the antenna proper, the feedline, and the antenna tuning unit (or transmatch). Hello, I am enquiring whether our antennas gurus feel 44ft, 51ft or 66ft would be a better length for the top wire of a 40-10m doublet antenna fed with either ladder line or open wire feeder. The basic inverted V antenna. It just works. Add coax feedline -- get on the air! The G5RV antenna is a multi-band center-fed dipole antenna capable of 1500 Watts. There are three types of dipoles: Ideal half-wavelength. Doublet with Ladder Line Feed. For 50 Ω transmission line this gives an SWR of ~6700!. Properly aligned and phased, a collinear array can provide a 3 dB or more increase in signal strength. Inverted Vee's present closer to 50Ω due to the effect of the ground being close to the tip of each leg. A request for assistance. For/Rev Wave Calculator. So, it's a cousin to the G5RV (which only resonates on 14 & 24 MHz. For FM and MW. Typical antenna lengths for the amateur bands from 160 - 10m, both when using insulators or nylon rope, are shown in Table 3. The all-band doublet is actually an antenna system and not just an antenna alone. The Classic Numbers for All Types of Wire Antennas at HF. 80m doublets appear to be the largest commonly used. Any azimuth or elevation slice can be highlighted. Audio filters and more. ROZENDAL ASSOCIATES, INC. Version 2 Quick-SWR-calculator <> Film: How to use the SWR Adjustment calculator. Vertical Bazooka Antenna. I also have a CW-160 antenna averaging 40 feet high, so that antenna provided a comparative benchmark. The published version of this article appeared in the February 1990 issue of QST Magazine. 20m & 40m trapped vertical squid pole antenna, VK3ZPF: 7 Mhz Vertical antenna, G3PTO: 9 band vertical HF antenna, RW3XA: 27m Titanex vertical, F5OHS: A 60 foot Irrigation Tubing Mast/Vertical, N6RK: A Modified Petlowany Antenna, N0LX: Antena vertical, EA7LY: Antenna Verticale: Antenna canna da pesca 1,8-30mhz copertura continua, IZ3DVO: Antenna. 160-10 Meter W7FG True Ladder Line Open Wire Fed Dipole 240' Dipole with 100' Feedline $169. It is essentially a coax fed G5RV scaled for best performance on 15 meters. Double Extended Zepp Antenna. Given time, many approaches in the Antenna Book would be well worth a try. 4, American Radio Relay League, Newington, CT, U. For a simple 1/4-wave whip, Read Article. Antenna Supports and Hardware. A dipole design for the 20-meter band is an efficient and inexpensive antenna for the novice and veteran ham enthusiast alike. The inverted Vee antenna will be shorter by 2 - 5% depending on the angle from horizontal. This antenna is often called a center-fed Zepp, although any similarity to a true Zepp. Terminated Sloper Antenna. Introduction: A collinear (or co-linear) antenna array is an array of dipole antennas mounted in such a manner that every element of each antenna is in an extension, with respect to its long axis, of its counterparts in the other antennas in the array. If we take the nmr spectrum. As the name suggests, the length of the antenna is about half of the wavelength of the frequency the antenna is cut for. Properly aligned and phased, a collinear array can provide a 3 dB or more increase in signal strength. for several antennas. 7 For filled apertures, q and A e are related. Typical antenna lengths for the amateur bands from 160 - 10m, both when using insulators or nylon rope, are shown in Table 3. My rig consists of ICOM 7300 and a 1500 W automatic antenna tuner (MJF). It retains the high-strength in the antenna wire, allowing the antenna to help support the central mounting pole. DC Power; radio shack or portable. As the name suggests, the length of the antenna is about half of the wavelength of the frequency the antenna is cut for. FT-817 FT-818 accessories. Doublet with Ladder Line Feed. A collinear antenna, also called "co-linear" or "collinear antenna array", is a set of dipole antennas aligned along their length so they form one long line. Uses 96 feet quarter wave, or per leg. Background. Now check it at the band edges too. Collinear Franklin Antenna. To realize this an antenna is divided into "short segments" with linear variation of current and voltage (like SPICE when simulating circuits). Using a folded dipole as a multi-band doublet--with parallel feedline to an antenna tuner--thus becomes a matter of matching rather than of pattern development. In fact, a half-wave dipole will often outperform many compromise commercial multiband antennas. the total weight of the entire package is a mere 730 grams !, well under 1 kg and very easy to put. contact us with your sizes etc for a price. This video documents my construction of a doublet antenna, you will see the antenna mounted and in position at the end of this video. The red squares indicate 50Ω SWR less than or equal to 10:1 for ladder line lengths of 1 to 125 feet. A double doublet antenna enables 80 meters and 40 meters to coexist on the same antenna system without interfering with each other. Antenna theory was thought about for a very brief moment. The best description for the HF antennas this page details is probably just a "centre fed dipole. As well as ensuring you the best possible reception (especially in the car park of the local Womens' Institute) almost 10 pence (20 cents) of the price of every. But don’t be misled – just because they are easy to make doesn’t mean they don’t work well. An HF Amateur Radio multiband antenna made from 600 feet of wire in the V formation. The design appeared in TT (RadCom) It's only long (14. Swallow-Tail Antenna. Wire antennas need to be made a bit long and cut to resonance. The All Band Doublet configured as a 'T' Antenna The main HF antenna is an All Band Doublet fed with ladder line and matched with a T-Match antenna tuner including a 1:4 current balun that gives access to all HF bands including the 160m band. My garden is on only 225 square meters so i have no room for the normal 1/4 wave radials. Other sources leave the. If you need a custom length, send an email through the contact form and we'll be sure you get what you need. Doublets of the 14th and 15th centuries were generally hip-length, sometimes shorter, worn over the shirt and hose, with a houppelande or other form of overgown. The apparatus is constructed from brass or any other suitable metal without requiring dielectric loading and without requiring direct coupling on the outside of the tubes. I usually get static build up on my HF doublet due to sand particles (I live above the beach) in the air. Super-Sloper Antenna. A more recent version of the antenna cut for 40 meters uses a different ratio:. Cebik, W4RNL. Double the Extended Zepp. Dipolo tribanda. Divide the this number by your design frequency. DATE REVIEWED DATE ADDED. The units reviewed (from lowest to highest cost) are the MFJ-927, CG Antenna CG-3000 and SGC SG-230. A collinear antenna, also called “co-linear” or “collinear antenna array”, is a set of dipole antennas aligned along their length so they form one long line. No-Tuner 20m-10m Doublet. My initial aim was actually for a 60 meter dipole antenna. Cebik, W4RNL 1434 High Mesa Drive Knoxville, TN 37938-4443 e-mail: [email protected] The horizontal parts are 100 feet long and parallel to each other. Dipole antennas plans category is a curation of 155 web resources on , K0RWU Multiband dipole 6-17 meters, Practical Dipole Antenna, Trapped Dipole Antenna for 20-30-40m. 7) Vertical doublet balance is difficult to maintain for many reasons. Clothesline Antenna. Topics: antenna, design. The normal Windom is described as having a 1/3 length leg, and a 2/3 length leg. These type of antennas have SWR that vary only about 2:1 over frequency ranges from 2 to 30 MHz. Make yourself a multiband antenna with many doublets in parallel, fed with just one feedline. Some houses don't really lend themselves to installing a half-wave dipole. For how to build information, construction details and material sources for this project, see my article: Building Dipole or Wire Antennas. Width is 192 feet total. The Big Zapper HF Antenna. The value of h A is usually of order 0. A doublet (derived from the Ital. ; The EMP response of the fan doublet, an hf-vhf communications antenna that ; resembles a bow tie viewed from broadside, was measured using a biconic simulator ; that produces a peak field. Enter the desired frequency and select the desired calculation from the drop box. My rig consists of ICOM 7300 and a 1500 W automatic antenna tuner (MJF). Wire Antenna Calculator. The apparatus is constructed from brass or any other suitable metal without requiring dielectric loading and without requiring direct coupling on the outside of the tubes. Although my antenna height was below 60-feet/18. I've received good reports and finally am able to operate on 80m without the tricky tuning of my 40m Doublet in the Attic. You can also enjoy multiband performance without traps, coils, fans or other schemes. INTRODUCTION - THIS PAGE. Antenna Gain is a popular subject amongst hams. The double extended Zepp is a dipole type Antenna consisting of two collinear 0. 2 times, parallel. Zepp Antenna: For the 80m, 60m, and 40m bands I use a classic multiband Zepp antenna. In comparison, this thing was dinky. The antenna was supposed to be a multiband antenna without traps and coils, fed with a normal RG58 coaxial cable, and practically doesn't cost anything. Same antenna but using a 18m, 16. 34 to 35 meters - 111 to 115 ft. Properly aligned and phased, a collinear array can provide a 3 dB or more increase in signal strength. Reasons to build a full size plug and play tuned NVIS dipole: •Full size antennas put out full size signals! Maximum power and voltage transfer occurs when the antenna chain has matched. Designed as a 20m antenna. for several antennas. It's strong enough to hold up pretty well to the wind, and becomes almost invisible after a few weeks in the weather. If you need a custom length, send an email through the contact form and we'll be sure you get what you need. efficient antenna system on multiple bands, ladder line to a balanced tuner should be used and this was the configuration at the 2009 NFARL FD. 2 times, parallel. The higher the antenna, the lower the takeoff angle to the horizon, which increases the effective range of the antenna. As the name suggests, the length of the antenna is about half of the wavelength of the frequency the antenna is cut for. Doublet Antenna. Building a 40m (7MHz) horizontal delta loop Posted on June 4, 2011 by g6nhu Over the last few weeks I’ve spent quite a lot of time reading about different options for wire HF aerials and one kept coming back into my head as being something I could easily try at this QTH – A full wavelength horizontal ‘delta’ loop for 40m. 64 It is then fed with a combination of 450 ohm twin lead and 72 ohm RG6 coax to the rig. Enter the desired operating frequency in megahertz to get a good starting length for a dipole in both feet and meters. One end goes straight into the rig, often with no feedline, and the other end in the air attached to something as high as you can find. Wire Antenna Calculator. Above: Screen shots from several EZNEC v. Cebik-Antenna-Options. Doublet with Ladder Line Feed. The dipole antenna is a straight electrical conductor measuring (1/2 wavelength) from end to end and connected at the center to a radio frequency (RF) feedline. Rf Current Meter. These antennas are also referred to as a doublet and make up the main RF radiating and receiving element in different sophisticated type of antennas. This Cobweb Antenna is using a double 1:4 balun that can handle a. 40m - 80m. An 80-meter antenna would thus match well on 40, 20, and 10, while a 40-meter antenna would match well on 20 and 10 meters. This antenna, also called a (doublet), is one of the simplest types of antenna and constitutes the main RF radiation and receiving element in various sophisticated types of antennas. Resources listed under ZS6BKW category belongs to Antennas main collection, and get reviewed and rated by amateur radio operators. Cebik-Antenna-Options. In nonresonant antennas only forward waves exist and in resonant antennas both forward and reflected waves exist. ROZENDAL ASSOCIATES, INC. Can be operated on non-optimum bands with an external tuner. Formula Dipole total Length = Amount / frequency Each leg of the dipole = Dipole Total Length / 2 Inverted Vees total length = ( Amount / Frequency ) * Percent Each leg of the Inverted Vee = Inverted Vees total length / 2 Where, Full Wave = 984 Half Wave = 468 Quarter Wave = 234 This tool will help you dynamically to calculate the total length of a dipole inverted V antenna. Anything else is generally a compromise. we can make you a doublet to any length you want with either 300 or 450 ohm balanced. PackTennas use full size wire antenna elements that can be configured. 160-10 Meter W7FG True Ladder Line Open Wire Fed Dipole 240' Dipole with 100' Feedline $169. 1 at lowest point), for ALMOST the FULL BAND on 40 Meters, and under 1. These 10-40M, 10-80M or 10-160M dipoles are ready to be erected right after un-boxing. Dipole Antenna Calculator. 75 m (55 ft). The antenna wire is some of my handy 17 Gauge aluminum electric fence wire. Notice the resultant wavelengths. What is a CobWebb antenna and what is its gain? It is a very efficient horizontally polarised omni-directional antenna for the 14, 18, 21, 24 and 28 MHz bands, with a gain of 7 dB over an isotropic radiator (7dBi). The Ground Plane Antenna Calculator Hall Electronics, Inc. 15 for the 40 meter band). Use 75 or 50 ohm cable to feed the centre of the dipole. In nonresonant antennas only forward waves exist and in resonant antennas both forward and reflected waves exist. Hf Radio, Ham Radio Antenna, All Band, Good Communication, Boombox, Spectrum, Ham Soup, Hams, Circuits The Ground Plane Antenna Calculator. Energy Analysis - Feedlines. 160-10 Meter W7FG Open Wire Fed Dipole- 240' Dipole. The radiatio. 0 m) above ground. Trapped dipole antennas. ZS6BKW antenna category is a curation of 20 web resources on , Some Useful ZS6BKW Modifications, ZS6BKW wire antenna , G5RV Antenna Revisited. Cebik-Antenna-Options. 40m - 80m - 160m Short Dipole Antenna. This is in stark contrast to 22:1 maximum possible VSWR and 18 to 8800 ohms impedance range (depending on feed line length) when a dipole or doublet is full length! Let's look at a Smith Chart of that antenna on 80 meters as feed line length is varied: Minimum Z to tuner shown above. The last 11 FDIM proceedings have contained my tentative contributions, each of which has tried to advance the study of antennas into. 37 - Multi-Band Portable Antenna. This was a spur of the moment project. Quick SWR Calculator for Vertical and Dipole Ham Radio Antennas Here’s a really simple way of double checking how to much to trim your antenna elements. This depends on the spacing of the wires of Ladderline (true Openwire). 80m Mobile Antenna Analysis. In the case of my antenna, its calculated impedance on all of the bands I want to use is more than 100 ohms, quite a lot more in many cases. The Ground Plane Antenna Calculator Hall Electronics, Inc. The EZNEC model predicts the antenna to have a gain of 11 dBi and front-to-back ratio of 25 dB at. 15 dB) over an isotropic source. It's a classic doublet which is a half wavelength long on 80 meters fed in the center with ladder line. 5 cm length, fitted in a flat star-wise pattern mounted about 27. I get 35 channels and I an a long way from any large city. This antenna was feed with 450-ohm ladder line and tuned with a Johnson Match Box. Right: 3D far field pattern, with 2D elevation "slice" highlighted. My goal was to test how well two different antennas that I made for field use compare to my base station antenna. Resources listed under ZS6BKW category belongs to Antennas main collection, and get reviewed and rated by amateur radio operators. The higher the antenna, the lower the takeoff angle to the horizon, which increases the effective range of the antenna. 5 m open-wire 450 ohm feeders. For best results, installation should be at height of 40 feet minimum. The BASIC source code of the computation engine is published as a PDS in MININEC. This calculator is designed to give the vertical length (height) of a quarter wave ground plane antenna, and the length of each of the four radials (often called radiators) for the frequency chosen. This video documents my construction of a doublet antenna, you will see the antenna mounted and in position at the end of this video. Transmission Lines. Using a folded dipole as a multi-band doublet--with parallel feedline to an antenna tuner--thus becomes a matter of matching rather than of pattern development. 160M Is a Tough Band • Propagation quite variable, signals often not very strong, heavy QRN during the summer -Mostly a nightime band, varies a lot through the night -During the winter, 800 miles or more is possible 2 hours before sunset, 2 hours after sunrise. Whereas a Dipole is a half-wavelength long radiator, fed in the Center of two equal length legs, the Off-Center-Fed Dipole (which I prefer to call a WINDOM) is a Dipole whose feedpoint is at a point removed from the center of the antenna. The formulas above are for typical wire dimensions. A so-called random wire antenna is an end fed antenna. No wonder then that LB Cebik, W4RNL picked the doublet as one of his top five multi-band backyard antennas [Cebik, 2009]. Half-Lamda Tee Antenna. The antenna wire lengths before trimming are 5. Many good older tuners like the Murch and DenTron units can be found at hamfests at a good price, but if you prefer to buy new, the Palstar units are built well and are in current production. I am sharing here the thought process and experimentation that I went through to arrive at the solution that best fits my needs. 5 m between 20 m trap and 40 m trap and 11 m between the 40 m trap and the end of the antenna. The antenna is designed to be fed with 50 or 75 Ohm Coax Cable of most any length with a Balun. To do this the G3RWF Doublet antenna had to be modelled three times:-1. Dipoles are balanced antennas and are the most fundamental form of antennas. Same antenna but using a 18m, 16. The antenna-wire i use is a very light and strong multicore "Litze" from DX-Wire in Germany. While cut-and-try experimenta-tion is a very slow way to optimize antennas, modeling is so quick that a wide range of so-lutions can be investigated easily. These type of antennas have SWR that vary only about 2:1 over frequency ranges from 2 to 30 MHz. They are affected by height above the ground and surrounding objects. Longer lengths will start to produce the classic "butterfly wing. Extended Double Zepp - Longer than a dipole. A continuación una captura de pantalla del programa con las dimensiones del loop magnético experimentado. It is worth noting I tried placing 8 turns for L2 initially but found I could only get a match on the bands 40m through to 12m, on my 88ft doublet. My Top Five Backyard Multi-Band Wire HF Antennas L. Even with a bit of antenna wire hanging vertically down the tree support, performance has been quite good. 32 - Four Element Broadside Antenna. The antenna This 10 - 160 meter tuned horizontal loop antenna is fed with 450 ohm ladder line all the way into the ham shack to an Palstar AT1500BAL balanced line antenna tuner. WSPR Antenna Comparison (Loop vs Dipole vs End Fed) Over the last few months I have been playing with WSPR and I wanted to be able to use it as a rough way to evaluate the relative performance of different antennas. com 2004 marks my fifth full decade as a licensed radio amateur. 8-30 Mc center-loaded HF whip, 51 Mc Whip, 28/27 Mc whip, GPS antenna under a radome on roof, 145 Mc 5/8 wave whip and VHF/UHF scanner whip. The last 11 FDIM proceedings have contained my tentative contributions, each of which has tried to advance the study of antennas into. From the radiation patterns of both, the difference between resonant antenna and nonresonant antenna is as follows. ) Order 7-Band 300 Watt OCF Dipole Antenna: $325 Special Price: $249 (6 or more = $198 ea. Another good choice might be the Cobweb antenna, which is small, horizontal, omni-directional, without nulls. I think that if you can deal with the open wire line routing issues, and use an efficient matching network (tuner) it may well be the very best multiband antenna. made with polyweave antenna wire. The design appeared in TT (RadCom) Jan & Feb 1993, but is also in Pat Hawker's "Antenna. In other words, the peak radiation at 30 degrees is about the same as that of a half wave dipole, while the null is about 3. Antenna Length Calculator Build a di-pole inside antenna and receive all the FM stations on your stereo unit, loud and clear. · Feedline loss vs. Three popular lengths for the antenna are these:. However, ultimate responsibility for the proper use of your equipment lies with you. My rig consists of ICOM 7300 and a 1500 W automatic antenna tuner (MJF). The dipole is any one of a class of antennas producing a radiation pattern approximating that of an elementary electric dipole with a radiating structure supporting a line current so energized that the current has only one node at each end. Reduced Size Dipole Antenna 18 28. up-solid down-solid. Hall, "Off-center loaded dipole antennas", QST Sept 1974, 28-34. With a view to get better performance particularly on lower frequency bands this antenna was. An antenna that has always managed to end up back in this position is the 135 foot parallel fed doublet. To realize this an antenna is divided into “short segments” with linear variation of current and voltage (like SPICE when simulating circuits). PackTennas are light weight, compact, portable HF antenna systems ideal for operating on the trail, at the campsite, on Field Day, SOTA activation, air travel, or HOA restricted locations. This could be 50 ohm types such as RG58, RG8X, RG8, RG213, or 75 ohm type such as RG11, RG59, RG6 or even 75 ohm twin lead. Ham Radio Antenna Wifi Antenna Radio Shop Hf Radio Ham Radio Operator Radio Band Cool Wood Projects Electrical Projects Diy Speakers This aerial covers the 20, 17, 15, 12 and 10 metre bands and is made from a single 3 metre length of 22 mm copper tube cut into 4 pieces of equal length. All parts used for the construction of the dipole can be used to construct the Half Square, so there is no loss in investment if you decide to switch. (No heavy coax or inline traps in the antenna line like the “W5GI” or “W3DZZ”. The South end of the antenna is attached to its supporting tree in the same manner as the North end. Below are links to screen shots from NEC-based analysis of the antenna, for two lengths: 55 ft and 66 ft. I took a look around and decided that making one was the best option. I have discovered several things from this experience. IC-706 Screwdriver Tuning. 74dB to a minimum of -0. 5 m open-wire 450 ohm feeders. 80m Cobra Doublet This aerial is called, to use a technical term, an 80m Linear-Loaded Doublet – known in the USA as a “Cobra” due to the snaking of the wires. " Someone else who built one and found it works. Reasons to build a full size plug and play tuned NVIS dipole: •Full size antennas put out full size signals! Maximum power and voltage transfer occurs when the antenna chain has matched. 160-10 Meter W7FG True Ladder Line Open Wire Fed Dipole 240' Dipole with 100' Feedline $169. The Double Bazooka Antenna - A Review. The EZNEC screenshot below is the current distribution on 15m. Feedline Lengths: The feedline length is also an important part of a "friendly" antenna design.
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